How to Take Command of Any Meeting

Spread the love

Here are the rules for running meetings. Meetings are vital for management and communication. Properly run meetings save time, increase motivation, productivity, and solve problems. Meetings create new ideas and initiatives. Meetings achieve buy-in. Meetings prevent ‘not invented here’ syndrome. Meetings diffuse conflict in a way that emails and memos cannot. Meetings are effective because the written word only carries 7% of the true meaning and feeling. Meetings are better than telephone conferences because only 38% of the meaning and feeling is carried in the way that things are said. The other 55% of the meaning and feeling is carried in facial expression and non-verbal signals. That’s why meetings are so useful. (Statistics from research by Dr Albert Mehrabian.)

Hold meetings, even if it’s difficult to justify the time. Plan, run and follow up meetings properly, and they will repay the cost many times over because there is still no substitute for physical face-to-face meetings. Hold meetings to manage teams and situations, and achieve your objectives quicker, easier, at less cost. Hold effective meetings to make people happier and more productive.

Brainstorming meetings are immensely powerful for team-building, creativity, decision-making and problem-solving (see the brainstorming section).

See also how to run workshops and workshop meetings.

Techniques of goal planning and project management are useful for running effective meetings.

Presentation skills and delegation abilities are helpful in meetings, and so is a basic understanding of motivation and personality.

Problem solving and decision-making are important in many meetings, although always consider how much of these responsibilities you can give to the group, which typically depends on their experience and the seriousness of the issue.

Meetings which involve people and encourage participation and responsibility are more constructive than meetings in which the leader tells, instructs and makes all the decisions, which is not a particularly productive style of leadership.

Holding meetings is an increasingly expensive activity, hence the need to run meetings well. Badly run meetings waste time, money, resources, and are worse than having no meetings at all.

The need to run effective meetings is more intense than ever in modern times, given ever-increasing pressures on people’s time, and the fact that people are rarely now based in the same location, due to mobile working and progressively ‘globalised’ teams and organisational structures.

New technology provides several alternatives to the conventional face-to-face meeting around a table, for example phone and video-conferencing, increasingly mobile and web-based. These ‘virtual meeting’ methods save time and money, but given the advantages of physical face-to-face communications (see the Mehrabian theory) there will always be a trade-off between the efficiencies of ‘virtual meetings’ (phone and video-conferencing notably) and the imperfections of remote communications methods (notably the inability to convey body language effectively via video conferencing, and the inability to convey body language and facial expressions by phone communications).

Accordingly, choose meeting methods that are appropriate for the situation. Explore other options such as telephone conferencing and video conferencing before deciding that a physical meeting is required, and decide what sort of meeting is appropriate for the situation. Subject to obvious adaptations and restrictions, the main principles of running physical face-to-face meetings apply to running virtual meetings.

Physical face-to-face meetings are the most effective type of meetings for conveying feelings and meanings. Therefore it is not sensible or fair to hold a virtual (phone or video-conferencing) meeting about a very serious matter. Understand that meaning and feelings can be lost or confused when people are not physically sitting in the same room as each other. Trying to save time and money by holding virtual meetings for serious matters is often a false economy for the organisation, and can actually be very unfair to staff if the matter significantly affects their personal futures or well-being.

A meeting provides a special opportunity to achieve organisational outcomes, and also to help the attendees in a variety of ways, so approach all meetings keeping in mind these two different mutually supporting aims.

The aim and test of a well run meeting is that whatever the subject, people feel afterwards that it took care of their needs, as well as the items on the agenda.

factors affecting how best to run meetings
Your choice of structure and style in running an effective meeting is hugely dependent on several factors:

the situation (circumstances, mood, atmosphere, background, etc)
the organisational context (the implications and needs of the business or project or organisation)
the team, or the meeting delegates (the needs and interests of those attending)
you yourself (your own role, confidence, experience, your personal aims, etc)
your position and relationship with the team
and of course the aims of the meeting.
There will always be more than one aim, because aside from the obvious reason(s) for the meeting, all meetings bring with them the need and opportunity to care for and/or to develop people, as individuals and/or as a team.

When you run a meeting you are making demands on people’s time and attention. When you run meeting you have an authority to do so, which you must use wisely.

This applies also if the people at the meeting are not your direct reports, and even if they are not a part of your organisation.

Whatever the apparent reason for the meeting, you have a responsibility to manage the meeting so that it is a positive and helpful experience for all who attend.

Having this aim, alongside the specific meeting objective(s), will help you develop an ability and reputation for running effective meetings that people are happy to attend.

Having a good understanding of other areas of management, including many featured on this website, will improve your overall ability to run meetings, for example:

goal planning
project management
the Tuckman model of team maturity and development
the Tannenbaum and Schmidt model of team development
personality and styles
facilitative decision-making (Sharon Drew Morgen’s methodology – it’s not just for selling)
ethical and social responsibility considerations (ethical reference points are essential)

meetings – basic rules
Here is a solid basic structure for most types of meetings. This assumes you have considered properly and decided that the meeting is necessary, and also that you have decided (via consultation with those affected if necessary or helpful) what sort of meeting to hold.

plan – use the agenda as a planning tool
circulate the meeting agenda in advance
run the meeting – keep control, agree outcomes, actions and responsibilities, take notes
write and circulate notes – especially actions and accountabilities
follow up agreed actions and responsibilities
Meetings come in all shapes and sizes, and for lots of purposes.

Meeting purposes include:

giving information
discussion (leading to an objective)
generating ideas
consulting and getting feedback
finding solutions/solving problems
crisis management
performance reporting/assessment
setting targets and objectives
setting tasks and delegating
making decisions
conveying /clarifying policy issues
team building
special subjects – guest speakers
inter-departmental – process improvement
The acronym POSTAD TV helps to remember how to plan effective meetings, and particularly how to construct the meeting agenda, and then notify the meeting delegates:

Priorities, Outcomes, Sequence, Timings, Agenda, Date, Time, Venue.

meeting priorities
What is the meeting’s purpose, or purposes? Always have a clear purpose; otherwise don’t have a meeting. Decide the issues for inclusion in the meeting and their relative priority: importance and urgency – they are quite different and need treating in different ways. Important matters do not necessarily need to be resolved quickly. Urgent matters generally do not warrant a lot of discussion. Matters that are both urgent and important are clearly serious priorities that need careful planning and management.

You can avoid the pressure for ‘Any Other Business’ at the end of the meeting if you circulate a draft agenda in advance of the meeting, and ask for any other items for consideration. (‘Any Other Business’ often creates a free-for-all session that wastes time, and gives rise to new tricky expectations, which if not managed properly then closes the meeting on a negative note.)

meeting outcomes
Decide the type of outcome (i.e., what is the purpose) for each issue, and put this on the agenda alongside the item heading. This is important as people need to know what is expected of them, and each item will be more productive with a clear aim at the outset. Typical types of outcomes are:

Planning (eg workshop session)
Generating ideas
Getting feedback
Finding solutions
Agreeing (targets, budgets, aims, etc)
Policy statement
Guest speaker – information, initiatives, etc.

meeting sequence
Put the less important issues at the top of the agenda, not the bottom. If you put them on the bottom you may never get to them because you’ll tend to spend all the time on the big issues.

Ensure any urgent issues are placed up the agenda. Non-urgent items place down the agenda – if you are going to miss any you can more easily afford to miss these.

Try to achieve a varied mix through the running order – if possible avoid putting heavy controversial items together – vary the agenda to create changes in pace and intensity.

Be aware of the tendency for people to be at their most sensitive at the beginning of meetings, especially if there are attendees who are keen to stamp their presence on proceedings. For this reason it can be helpful to schedule a particularly controversial issue later in the sequence, which gives people a chance to settle down and relax first, and maybe get some of the sparring out of their systems over less significant items.

Also be mindful of the lull that generally affects people after lunch, so try to avoid scheduling the most boring item of the agenda at this time; instead after lunch get people participating and involved, whether speaking, presenting, debating or doing other active things.

meeting timings (of agenda items)
Consider the time required for the various items rather than habitually or arbitrarily decide the length of the meeting. Allocate a realistic time slot for each item. Keep the timings realistic – usually things take longer than you think.

Long meetings involving travel for delegates require pre-meeting refreshments 30 minutes prior to the actual meeting start time.

Put plenty of breaks into long meetings. Unless people are participating and fully involved, their concentration begins to drop after just 45 minutes. Breaks don’t all need to be 20 minutes for coffee and cigarettes. Five minutes every 45-60 minutes for a quick breath of fresh air and leg-stretch will help keep people attentive.

Unless you have a specific reason for arranging one, avoid formal sit-down restaurant lunches – they’ll add at least 30 minutes unnecessarily to the lunch break, and the whole thing makes people drowsy. Working lunches are great, but make sure you give people 10-15 minutes to get some fresh air and move about outside the meeting room. If the venue is only able to provide lunch in the restaurant, arrange a buffet, or if a sit-down meal is unavoidable save some time by the giving delegates’ menu choices to the restaurant earlier in the day.

It’s not essential, but it is usually helpful, to put precise (planned) times for each item on the agenda. What is essential however is for you to have thought about and planned the timings so you can run the sessions according to a schedule. In other words, if the delegates don’t have precise timings on their agendas – make sure you have them on yours. This is one of the biggest responsibilities of the person running the meeting, and is a common failing, so plan and manage this aspect firmly. People will generally expect you to control the timekeeping, and will usually respect a decision to close a discussion for the purpose of good timekeeping, even if the discussion is still in full flow.

meeting attendees
It’s often obvious who should attend; but sometimes it isn’t. Consider inviting representatives from other departments to your own department meetings – if relationships are not great they will often appreciate being asked, and it will help their understanding of your issues, and your understanding of theirs.

Having outside guests from internal and external suppliers helps build relationships and strengthen the chain of supply, and they can often also shed new light on difficult issues too. Use your discretion though – certain sensitive issues should obviously not be aired with ‘outsiders’ present.

Avoid and resist senior managers and directors attending your meetings unless you can be sure that their presence will be positive, and certainly not intimidating. Senior people are often quick to criticise and pressurise without knowing the facts, which can damage team relationships, morale, motivation and trust.

If you must have the boss at your meeting, try to limit their involvement to lunch only, or presenting the awards at the end of the meeting. In any event, tell your boss what you are trying to achieve at the meeting and how – this gives you more chance in controlling possible interference.


meeting date
Ensure the date you choose causes minimum disruption for all concerned. It’s increasingly difficult to gather people for meetings, particularly from different departments or organisations. So take care when finding the best date – it’s a very important part of the process, particularly if senior people are involved.

For meetings that repeat on a regular basis the easiest way to set dates is to agree them in advance at the first meeting when everyone can commit there and then. Try to schedule a year’s worth of meetings if possible, then you can circulate and publish the dates, which helps greatly to ensure people keep to them and that no other priorities encroach.

Pre-planning meeting dates is one of the keys to achieving control and well-organised meetings. Conversely, leaving it late to agree dates for meetings will almost certainly inconvenience people, which is a major source of upset.

Generally try to consult to get agreement of best meeting dates for everyone, but ultimately you will often need to be firm. Use the ‘inertia method’, i.e., suggest a date and invite alternative suggestions, rather than initially asking for suggestions, which rarely achieves a quick agreement.

meeting time
Times to start and finish depend on the type and duration of the meeting and the attendees’ availability, but generally try to start early, or finish at the end of the working day. Two-hour meetings in the middle of the day waste a lot of time in travel. Breakfast meetings are a good idea in certain cultures, but can be too demanding in more relaxed environments. If attendees have long distances to travel (i.e., more than a couple of hours, consider overnight accommodation on the night before.

If the majority have to stay overnight it’s often worth getting the remainder to do so as well because the team building benefits from evening socialising are considerable, and well worth the cost of a hotel room. Overnight accommodation the night before also allows for a much earlier start. By the same token, consider people’s travelling times after the meeting, and don’t be unreasonable – again offer overnight accommodation if warranted – it will allow a later finish, and generally keep people happier.

As with other aspects of the meeting arrangements, if in doubt always ask people what they prefer. Why guess when you can find out what people actually want, especially if the team is mature and prefers to be consulted anyway.

meeting venue
Many meetings are relatively informal, held in meeting rooms ‘on-site’ and do not warrant extensive planning of the venue as such. On the other hand, big important meetings held off-site at unfamiliar venues very definitely require a lot of careful planning of the venue layout and facilities. Plan the venue according to the situation – leave nothing to chance.

Venue choice is critical for certain sensitive meetings, but far less so for routine, in-house gatherings. Whatever, there are certain preparations that are essential, and never leave it all to the hotel conference organiser or your own facilities department unless you trust them implicitly. Other people will do their best but they’re not you, and they can’t know exactly what you want. You must ensure the room is right – mainly, that it is big enough with all relevant equipment and services. It’s too late to start hunting for a 20ft power extension lead five minutes before the meeting starts.

Other aspects that you need to check or even set up personally are:

table and seating layout
top-table (if relevant) position
tables for demonstration items, paperwork, hand-outs, etc
electricity power points and extensions
heating and lighting controls
projection and flip chart equipment positioning and correct operation
whereabouts of toilets and emergency exits – fire drill
confirm reception and catering arrangements
back-up equipment contingency
All of the above can and will go wrong unless you check and confirm – when you book the venue and then again a few days before the meeting.

For a big important meeting, you should also arrive an hour early to check everything is as you want it. Some meetings are difficult enough without having to deal with domestic or logistics emergencies; and remember if anything goes wrong it reflects on you – it’s your credibility, reputation and control that’s at stake.

Positioning of seating and tables is important, and for certain types of meetings it’s crucial. Ensure the layout is appropriate for the occasion:

Formal presentations to large groups – theatre-style – the audience in rows, preferably with tables, facing the chairman.
Medium-sized participative meetings – horse-shoe (U) table layout with the open part of the U facing the chairman’s table, or delegates’ tables arranged ‘cabaret’ style.
Small meetings for debate and discussion – board-room style – one rectangular table with chairman at one end.
Relaxed team meetings for planning and creative sessions – lounge style, with easy chairs and coffee tables.
Your own positioning in relation to the group is important. If you are confident and comfortable and your authority is in no doubt you should sit close to the others, and can even sit among people. If you expect challenge or need to control the group strongly set yourself further away and clearly central, behind a top-table at the head of things.

Ensure everyone can see screens and flip charts properly – actually sit in the chairs to check – you’ll be surprised how poor the view is from certain positions.

Set up of projectors and screens is important – strive for the perfect rectangular image, as this gives a professional, controlled impression as soon as you start. Experiment with the adjustment of projector and screen until it’s how you want it. If you are using LCD projector and overhead projector (a rare beast these days) you may need two screens. A plain white wall is often better than a poor screen.

People from the western world read from left to right, so if you want to present anything in order using different media, set it up so that people can follow it naturally from left to right. For instance show introductory bullet points (say on a flip chart on the left – as the audience sees it) and the detail for each point (say on projector and screen on the right).

Position screens and flip chart where they can be used comfortably without obscuring the view. Ensure the speaker/chairman’s position is to the side of the screen, not in front of it obscuring the view.

Ensure any extension leads and wiring is taped to the floor or otherwise safely covered and protected.

Supply additional flip chart easels and paper, or write-on acetates and pens, for syndicate work if applicable. You can also ask people to bring laptops for exercises and presentation to the group assuming you have LCD projector is available and compatible.

In venues that have not been purpose-built for modern presentations, sometimes the lighting is problematical. If there are strong fluorescent lights above the screen that cannot be switched off independently, it is sometimes possible for them to be temporarily disconnected (by removing the starter, which is a small plastic cylinder plugged into the side of the tube holder). In older buildings it sometimes possible to temporarily remove offending light-bulbs if they are spoiling the visual display, but always enlist the help of one of the venue’s staff rather than resorting to DIY.

Finally, look after the venue’s staff – you need them on your side. Most business users treat hotel and conference staff disdainfully – show them some respect and appreciation and they will be more than helpful.


Please follow and like us:

Related posts

Leave a Reply

779 Comments on "How to Take Command of Any Meeting"

Notify of
Sort by:   newest | oldest | most voted
eric dickerson jersey

For more than 5 minutes and not using a hit on end goal within the first, often the Blackhawks acquired for the table down potential enjoy Byfuglien while in the fine box meant for elbowing. Shaw content spinner around before the online world along with used any rebound off Brandon Saad’s shot to score his particular 14th purpose at 17: forty.


There are several great campers parks around Australia
and there is a have to stay in them sometimes,
however, some are a nightmare unlike the one out below far
from the cities.


SEO is not a solitary activity job but comprises many
like articles and blog sites creating, creating capturing keywords, title and doing Meta information summary, website
design, report generation etc

garcinia cambogia extract pure

In the studies, 706 participants completely were given Garcinia cambogia and the researchers found that, across the studies, the infusion did have
a small, but significant, effect on weight loss but ultimately doesn’t have clinical


SEO will certainly bring the site visitors to your internet site, but that is only one piece of the puzzle.

patrick kane jersey

It can be early on, prematurily ., to commence in order to wonder about yet another playoff operate and much more heroics.

brazilian body wav
I personally love a lot of these brazilian body wav!!!!!!!!!!! I got my 1st binocular with the holiday season from 2009 (quick, crushed stone dyed ones) plus they’re continue to when it comes to extraordinary form! It’s important to dedicate taking excellent care of him or her nevertheless. Utilize the drinking water repellant sprinkle, it again really performs discovered go mad your weather they shall be good. They are outstanding nice which means therefore therefore interesting. My spouse and i just about thrist regarding cold weather (that will was not al all long my home) in order to surface… Read more »

This content is really interesting. I have bookmarked
it. Do you allow guest posting on your blog ? I can provide hi quality posts for you.
Let me know.


Unfortunately not everyone has discipline and the time it
requires to take on the kind of life style changes necessary for weight loss.

investing home equity loan

Simply want to say your article is as surprising. The clearness in your post is just great and i
could assume you’re an expert on this subject. Fine with your permission let me to grab your feed to
keep updated with forthcoming post. Thanks a million and please keep up the enjoyable work.


I like it when folks come together and share opinions.
Great site, stick with it!


Somebody necessarily lend a hand to make critically
posts I would state. That is the first time I frequented your website page and so far?
I amazed with the analysis you made to create this actual put up amazing.

Fantastic task!

Superb, what a web site it is! This webpage presents valuable
information to us, keep it up.


I will right away grasp your rss as I can not find your email subscription hyperlink or e-newsletter service.

Do you’ve any? Kindly let me understand in order that
I may subscribe. Thanks.

Excellent post. I’m experiencing many of these issues as well..


Excellent blog here! Also your web site loads up fast!

What web host are you using? Can I get your affiliate link to
your host? I wish my website loaded up as quickly as yours lol


It’s an awesome post for all the online people; they will obtain benefit from it I
am sure.


Great information. Lucky me I recently found your blog by
accident (stumbleupon). I’ve saved it for later!


I have to thank you for the efforts you’ve put in penning this blog.

I’m hoping to see the same high-grade blog posts by you later on as well.

In fact, your creative writing abilities has inspired me to get my very
own website now ๐Ÿ˜‰

I'nate Scientific

It’s awesome to pay a visit this site and reading the views of all colleagues on the topic of this piece of writing, while I am also zealous of getting


I enjoy what you guys tend to be up too. This kind
of clever work and reporting! Keep up the superb works guys I’ve incorporated you guys to my personal blogroll.


This piece of writing is genuinely a nice one it assists new net viewers, who are wishing in favor of blogging.

A motivating discussion is worth comment. I believe that you ought to publish more about this subject,
it might not be a taboo matter but typically people do not discuss such topics.
To the next! Many thanks!!


I’m extremely impressed along with your writing abilities as well as
with the format on your weblog. Is that this a paid theme or
did you customize it yourself? Anyway keep
up the excellent high quality writing, it’s uncommon to see a
great blog like this one today..


I don’t know if it’s just me or if perhaps everybody else experiencing issues
with your site. It appears like some of the written text in your posts are
running off the screen. Can someone else please comment and let
me know if this is happening to them too? This might be
a problem with my browser because I’ve had this happen before.
Thank you


When someone writes an article he/she keeps the thought of a user in his/her brain that how a user can know it.
So that’s why this article is amazing. Thanks!


These are truly wonderful ideas in about blogging. You have
touched some pleasant things here. Any way keep up wrinting.


Thanks for sharing your info. I truly appreciate your efforts and I
am waiting for your next post thanks once again.


Hey there I am so grateful I found your web site, I really found you by mistake, while I was
browsing on Digg for something else, Anyhow I am here now and would just
like to say cheers for a remarkable post and a all
round exciting blog (I also love the theme/design), I don’t have time to browse it all at the minute
but I have book-marked it and also added in your RSS feeds, so when I have
time I will be back to read a lot more,
Please do keep up the superb work.


These core specialists develop the SEO procedure with complete research study which is
after that adhered to diligently by every Search Engine Optimization professional in a critical fashion to
produce the wanted positions as well as appeal in online search engine.


Magnificent items from you, man. I have remember your stuff previous to and you’re just extremely wonderful.
I actually like what you’ve bought right here, really like what you’re
stating and the way wherein you are saying it.
You are making it enjoyable and you still care for to keep it wise.
I can not wait to read much more from you. That is actually a great


When I originally commented I clicked the “Notify me when new comments are added” checkbox and now each
time a comment is added I get several emails with the same comment.
Is there any way you can remove people from that service?

Thank you!

Andrew Dorko

Hurrah, that’s what I was searching for, what a data! existing here at this webpage, thanks
admin of this web site.


I have read so many articles or reviews regarding
the blogger lovers however this paragraph is actually a good paragraph, keep it up.


Simply desire to say your article is as surprising.
The clarity for your publish is just nice and that i could
suppose you are a professional on this subject. Well together with your permission let me to grasp your RSS feed to
stay up to date with imminent post. Thanks 1,000,000 and please
carry on the enjoyable work.

This makes sense, undxerstanding thqt symptoms affect both genders and and conditions of low Testosterone are universal.


In fact, your testosterone levels have probably been slowly falling for some time,
a downfall that generally begins around age 30.


Greetings! Beneficial advice in this particular post!
It’s the little changes that will make the
most important changes. Thanks a lot for sharing!

Mainly, itt iis because testosterone replacement therapy is, in addition, associated with lipid abnormalities,
sleepiung problems and several other ailments.


Thanks for sharing this kind of pleasant opinion, post is pleasant, thats why i have got
read it completely


Hi, I do think this is a great website. I stumbledupon it ๐Ÿ˜‰ I am going to come back yet again since I book marked it.
Money and freedom is the best way to change, may you be rich and continue to
help other people.


We stumbled right here by way of a different web page and thought I may at the same time
check things out. I like things i see so i
am just following you. Anticipate exploring your internet page repeatedly.

Dance Receptions Band

Have you ever considered about including a little bit
more than just your articles? I mean, what you say is important and all.

Nevertheless think of if you added some great images or video
clips to give your posts more, “pop”! Your content is excellent but with images and videos,
this site could certainly be one of the very best in its
field. Wonderful blog!


Shores MM, Smith NL, Forsberg CW, Anawalt BD, Matsumoto AM.
Testosterone therapy and mortality in men with low testosterone levels.


Hi there it’s me, I am also visiting this web page regularly, this
site is in fact nice and the users are really sharing nice thoughts.

Mat ong nguyen chat

Spot on with this write-up, I actually believe that this site needs far
more attention. I’ll probably be back again to read more, thanks for the information!

It’s amazing in support of me to have a site,
which is useful designed for my experience. thanks admin

A New Way Of Internet Security

I really like what you guys tend to be up too. This kind of clever work and reporting!
Keep up the awesome works guys I’ve added you guys to my blogroll.

quiz prediksi bola

Hi there, I enjoy reading through your article post.
I like to write a little comment to support you.

middle ear blockage tinnitus

Do you mind if I quote a few of your posts as long as I provide credit and sources back
to your site? My blog is in the exact same niche as yours and my visitors would truly
benefit from some of the information you provide here.
Please let me know if this okay with you. Thanks a lot!

meditation before sleep

Hi, this weekend is good designed for me, as this point in time i am
reading this impressive educational paragraph here at my residence.

best gas hot water heater

I seriously love your website.. Excellent colors & theme.
Did you build this site yourself? Please reply back as I’m attempting to create my very own blog and would love to find
out where you got this from or what the theme is called.
Thank you!


I have read so many articles or reviews regarding the blogger lovers
except this piece of writing is genuinely a good paragraph, keep it up.





ใ ใ‘ใฉใ€ๅธ‚่ฒฉใฎๅ•†ๅ“ใฏใ€ๅฎ‰ใใฆใ™ใใซๆŸ“ใ‚ใ‚‰ใ‚Œใ‚‹ใ‚“ใงใ™ใ‚ˆใญใ€‚


ใ‘ใ‚Œใฉใ€่‡ชๅˆ†ใซ้™ใฃใฆใ€ๅคงไธˆๅคซใ ใ‚ใ†ใจๆ€ใ„ไฝฟใ„ใพใ—ใŸใ€‚




ใ ใ‹ใ‚‰ใ€็™ฝ้ซชๆŸ“ใ‚ใฎๆˆๅˆ†ใฏใ€ใ™ใ”ใๅคงไบ‹ใชใ“ใจใชใ‚“ใงใ™ใญใ€‚

ๆ˜†ๅธƒใฎใ‚จใ‚ญใ‚นๆ˜†ๅธƒใ‚จใ‚ญใ‚นใŒ้…ๅˆใ•ใ‚Œใฆใ„ใ‚‹็™ฝ้ซชๆŸ“ใ‚ใฏใ€ใฉใ†ใชใ‚“ใ ใ‚ใ†ใ‹

ๆ˜†ๅธƒใฏใ€ๆ˜”ใ‹ใ‚‰ใ€ๆ‘‚ๅ–ใ™ใ‚‹ใจ้ซชใซใƒ„ใƒคใŒใงใ‚‹้ฃŸใน็‰ฉใ ใจใ€็ฅ–ๆฏใ‹ใ‚‰